Causes of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease is the inflammation of the gum tissues due to the buildup of plaque that causes a progressive infection. This is a progressive disease that is known to be the main cause of permanent tooth loss. At first, the effects are mild and almost undetectable. However, once the infection spreads, the effects become irreversible. Now, the best preventive measure against this disease is information. In order to pave the way for prevention, one must first know what the causes of periodontal disease are.

5 Main Causes of Periodontal Disease

Poor Oral Hygiene

People have been taught the basics of oral hygiene from the moment their teeth started growing.

Causes of Periodontal Disease - Toledo Periodontist

However, while brushing after meals and flossing daily could be good oral practices, it is not enough. Add regular trips to your dentist to the list and you’re good to go. This is because you cannot remove plaque buildup by simply brushing your teeth. Plus, bacteria will spread and infect the surrounding structures of your teeth if not properly removed.


Since there is a link between smoking and several systemic diseases, it’s not surprising that it’s on this list. Smoking or tobacco use causes tartar buildup. This buildup will give plaque more area to adhere to, thus spreading the infection and toxins. Moreover, smoking weakens the body’s immune system. This makes it harder for your body to fight the infection or heal the damaged gums. As a smoker, you are twice more likely to have progressing periodontal disease.

Chronic Stress and Poor Diet

There’s emerging evidence that links stress to growing infections. When a person experiences high stress levels, the body reduces its ability to fight infections. This is why people are more susceptible to diseases and infections when they’re stressed. The same applies to periodontal disease. A person who is chronically stressed has a weakened immune system. This means their body will have a difficult time responding to the infection spreading through their teeth and its surrounding structures.

The same goes with people who have poor or unbalanced diets. Not only does poor diet contribute to tooth decay or gum disease, it also makes it difficult for your body to resist infection. Without proper nutrition, the disease will start progressing through the stages faster.

Underlying Medical Issues

Researchers discovered a link between several systemic diseases and periodontal disease. The findings suggest that underlying medical issues is one of the causes of periodontal disease. This could be traced back to an unwell person’s weakened immune system. Since periodontal disease progresses due to an infection, if the body doesn’t respond quickly, the infection will grow worse over time. Some of the systemic diseases found to be linked to periodontal disease are cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

If underlying medical issues are the causes of periodontal disease, it is best to consult a physician. Cure or control the medical issue before heading to the dentist or a periodontist. This is because some medications could aggravate the progression of periodontal disease. Drugs such as antidepressants, contraceptives, or steroids could contribute to the growth of the infection.

Genetic Predispositions

Predominantly, some diseases are inherited from genetic factors. In some cases, a disease is not present at birth, but a person will have a high chance acquiring it. The same genetic predispositions apply to periodontal disease. Despite having good oral hygiene, a person who inherits susceptibility towards the disease will more likely have it as an adult.

If the disease is present in the family tree and is impossible to prevent, seek a periodontist. The periodontist will perform necessary countermeasures to prevent the infection from further spreading.

Undergoing the Causes of Periodontal Disease All at Once?

Aside from underlying medical conditions, if you’re going through any of the causes of periodontal disease all at once, this means you’re at a irreversible stage. The periodontist will resort to grafting, scaling and root planing in order to promote tissue regeneration or kill the bacteria. If gum recession is present, the periodontist will perform a procedure that involves recontouring the gum tissue.

Although the effects are irreversible, there are many ways to restore the teeth and gums to a state similar to before. Dental implants will be inserted if several teeth are lost. However, prevention is better than cure. If you have an inkling that periodontal disease is progressing, visit a periodontist and get a professional consultation.