Types of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is an oral disease that progressively affects the surrounding structures of the teeth. When left untreated, an infection will spread below the gum line, and lead to more complications. These complications will lead to the deterioration of the teeth’s surrounding structures, and start to cause the loss of your teeth. The first step in preventing Periodontal disease from evolving through its stages is to be knowledgeable about the topic. Here are the four most common types of Periodontal Disease.

The 4 Types of Periodontal Disease

It is important to understand that Periodontal disease is progressive and acts in stages. These stages are classified into four types of periodontal disease.

Types of Periodontal Disease - Toledo Dentist


The most common and the earliest form of the disease. This type of periodontal disease is often characterized by bleeding gums and the inflammation of the gums caused by a buildup of plaque at the gumline. Take note that the gums should never bleed even as you strenuously brush your teeth. At this stage, your dentist can still reverse the damages. This is because the disease has not yet affected the connective tissue and bone that hold the teeth in place.

How to treat gingivitis

Sustain proper home care and professional cleaning to cure or prevent it. Moreover, a healthy combination of dentist-approved antibiotics and medicated mouthwashes can kill the bacteria and heal the pockets below the gumline. With the advice of your dentist, root planing and deep scaling procedures will be performed to cleanse the formed pockets of food debris.

Chronic Periodontal Disease

If gingivitis is left untreated, it progresses to Chronic Periodontal Disease. At this stage, the plaque buildup turns into tartar, which is difficult to remove by brushing alone. However, you can prevent further damage by addressing it early and treating it properly. If not, it leads to loose permanent teeth due to gum recession. The complications are irreversible and tooth decay starts to happen. This will affect your bite, as pain and discomfort will be present. In time, the pocket below the gumline will start to form and may fill with pus. Eventually, the increase in bacterial activity will damage and destroy the teeth, leading to permanent tooth loss.

How to treat Chronic Periodontal Disease

Once the infection reaches this level, the disease is no longer easy to cure. The deterioration of the supportive tissue around the teeth is prevalent in this stage. The periodontist might perform gum surgery in order to protect your teeth from further damages caused by gum recession.

Aggressive Periodontal Disease

Aggressive Periodontal Disease is similar toChronic Periodontal Disease. However, the infection at this stage progresses more rapidly. The increase in infection will lead to the rapid loss of gum attachment and bone destruction. This is due to the chronic abscess formation from the early infection.

How to treat Aggressive Periodontal Disease

Once you encounter this type of Periodontal disease, your dentist will require you to have gum surgery. During this stage, the infection is harder to prevent from spreading. Thus, the dentist or periodontist will perform scaling, root planing, as well as bone and gum grafting.

Periodontal Disease caused by Systemic Conditions

In some cases,Periodontal disease can occur due to an underlying systemic condition. When this happens, the disease acts according to the severity of the systemic condition. Oftentimes, it behaves like Aggressive Periodontal Disease, but in a more complicated form. Some of the most common systemic conditions that cause this are cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or respiratory diseases.

How to treat Periodontal Disease caused by Systemic Conditions 

First of all, it is important to cure or control the underlying medical condition. Afterwards, the periodontist will perform the necessary treatment depending on the severity of the Periodontal disease.

Necrotizing Periodontal Disease

Necrotizing Periodontal Disease is a destructive infection of gum tissues, and often leads to necrosis (tissue death). This is one of the types of periodontal disease that occurs in people who have compromised immune systems. This includes people who have poor nutrition, HIV, or those who suffer from substance abuse. The host’s limited defense mechanism causes the body to respond poorly to the bacteria that accumulates around the teeth. In time, the person will suffer from intense oral pain due to necrosis and loss of periodontal attachment.

How to treat Necrotizing Peridontal Disease

If you are immunocompromised, your periodontist will prescribe analgesics to control the pain, after they consult with your physician. Afterwards, the dentist will perform gentle scaling and root planing to remove dental plaque and hard tartar.

Your Next Steps

The earlier you treat the periodontal disease, the better chance you have of saving your gums and teeth. Regular oral examination from your dentist or periodontist is the key to preventing the disease. Once you encounter any of the types of periodontal diseases, look for a center such as the Periodontal Health and Implant Surgery Center near you. Asking for the advice of a periodontist is your first step in order to prevent or treat any of the types of periodontal disease.

However, the best preventive measures always include having proper oral hygiene. Brushing your teeth, flossing, and using mouthwash regularly should prevent any bacteria from accumulating. Moreover, visiting your dentist for regular cleaning is also recommended.